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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Sus cebifrons
Visayan warty pig
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Literature Cited

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2009. Appendices I, II and III, as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 22 May 2009.  Available online at the CITES website.

Groves, C. P. 1997. Taxonomy of wild pigs (Sus) of the Philippines. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society; 120(2): 163-191

Groves, C. P., and P. Grubb. 1993. The Eurasian suids, Sus and Babyrousa - Taxonomy and Description. In Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos: Status Survey and Action Plan. Edited by W. L. R. Oliver. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 129-136. Available online at the Pig, Peccary, and Hippo Specialist Group website.

Hamann, A. and E. Curio. 1999. Interactions among frugivores and fleshy fruit trees in a Philippine submontane rainforest. Conservation Biology; 13(4): 766-773.

ISIS (International Species Information System). 2005 Specimen Records.

Lastica, E. A. 2003. Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons) - Species husbandry guidelines. Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Programmes.

Lastica, E. A. 2006. Personal Communication (February 2006). Programme Assistant, Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Programmes; Consultant Curator, Silliman University - Center for Tropical Conservation Studies

Lastica, E. A. 2007. Personal Communication (June 2007). Coordinator of the Threatened Species Conservation Breeding Programmes, Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Programme; Consultant Curator, Silliman University - Center for Tropical Conservation Studies

Oliver, W. L. R., C. R. Cox, and C. P. Groves. 1993. The Philippine Warty Pigs (Sus philippensis and S. cebifrons). In Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos: Status Survey and Action Plan. Edited by W. L. R. Oliver. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 145-155. Available online at the Pig, Peccary, and Hippo Specialist Group website.

Oliver, W. L. R. 1995. The taxonomy, distribution and status of Philippine wild pigs. IBEX (Journal of Mountain Ecology); 3: 26-32.

Oliver, W. L. R. 2004a. First (and last?) breeding loan export of Visayan (Negros) warty pigs. Suiform Soundings (PPHSG Newsletter); 4(1): 25-27.

Oliver, W. [Compiler]. 2004b. Summary of group activities during the past quadrennium. Suiform Soundings (PPHSG Newsletter); 4(2): 43-45.

Oliver, W. 2008. Sus cebifrons. In IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Rabor, D. S. 1977. Philippine Birds and Mammals. University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City, Philippines.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 1993. Mammal Species of the World (Second Edition). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.

Zabala, M. 2010. In litt. E-mail correspondence from Zoo Miami to Brent Huffman, 29 December 2010.

Additional Resources

*Blouch, R. A. 1995. Conservation and research priorities for threatened suids of South and Southeast Asia. Journal of Mountain Ecology; 3: 21-25.

Catibog-Sinha, C. S. 1978. Wild pigs (Sus celebensis ssp.) in the Philippines (Part 2). In Wild Plants as Potential Feeds for Wild Pigs; Ready References, Monograph No. 5; Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna, Philippines. pp. 17-29.

Catibog-Sinha, C. S. 1981. The quantity and quality of wild food plants and the depredations of wild pigs in the Philippines. (Unpubl.) Ph.D. thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma: 237 pp.

Cox, C. R. 1985. A field survey of the distribution and conservation status of the wild pig (Sus barbatus cebifrons) and Prince Alfred's spotted rusa (Cervus alfredi) in the Visayan Islands, Republic of the Philippines. Unpublished report to the IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group: 27 pp.

Cox, C. R. 1987. The Philippines spotted deer and the Visayan warty pig. Oryx; 21(1): 37-42.

Cox, C. R. 1987. A preliminary survey of the proposed Panay Mountains National Park. Unpublished report to the Zoologischer Garten Berlin: 44 pp.

Cummings, M. J. 2003. An Assessment of the Visayan Warty Pig, Sus cebifrons in the Imbang-Caliban Watershed, North Negros Forest Reserve, Philippines: Ecological and Social Perspectives. MSc Conservation Dissertation. University College London.

Forest Management Bureau. 1988. Natural Forest Resources of the Philippines. Philippine-German Forest Resources Inventory Project, Forest Management Bureau, Dept. of the Environment and Natural Resources, Manila: 62 pp.

Groves, C. P. 1981. Ancestors for the Pigs: Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Genus Sus. Tech. Bull. No. 3, Dept. of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra: 96 pp.

Groves, C. P. 1991. Wild pig skulls from Mt. Talinis, Southeast Negros. Unpublished report to British Museum (Natural History). 2 pp.

Heaney, L. R. 1986. Biogeography of mammals of Southeast Asia: estimates of rates of colonisation, extinction and speciation. Biol. J. Linnaen Society; 28: 127-165.

*Lucchini, V., E. Meijaard, C. H. Diong, C. P. Groves, and E. Randi. 2005. New phylogenetic perspectives among species of South-east Asian wild pig (Sus sp.) based on mtDNA sequences and morphometric data. Journal of Zoology; 266(1): 25-35.

*Maala, C. P. 2001. Endangered Philippine wildlife species with special reference to the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) and tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis). Journal of International Development and Cooperation; 8: 1-17.

MacKinnon, J., and K. MacKinnon. 1986. Review of the Protected Areas System in the Indo-Malayan Realm. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge: 284 pp.

McGowan, P. 1986. Pigs and Palawan. Unpublished report to IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group: 4 pp.

Mohr, E. 1960. Wilde Schweine (Neue Brehm-Bücherei no. 247). Wittenberg-Lutherstadt: Ziemsen Verlag.

*Mudar, K. M. 1986. A morphometric analysis of the five subspecies of Sus barbatus, the bearded pig. M.Sc. thesis, Michigan State University.

Oliver, W. L. R. 1991. The skulls from Mt. Talinis, IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group report. Species 16:

*Oliver, W. L. R. 1992. The taxonomy, distribution and status of Philippine wild pigs. Silliman Journal; 36(1): 55-64.

*Oliver, W. L. R. 1993. Threatened endemic artiodactyls of the Philippines: status and future priorities. International Zoo Yearbook; 32:131-144.

Oliver, W. L. R. 1996. Summary of recent research on Philippine wild pigs and continued development of the Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons) Conservation Program. Unpublished report to the DENR and Zoological Society of San Diego: 29 pp.

Oliver, W. L. R. and R. Wirth. 1996. Conservation programmes for threatened endemic species in the Philippines. International Zoo News; 43(5): 337-348.

Oliver, W. L. R., C. R. Cox, and L. Dolar. 1991. The Philippine Spotted Deer, Cervus alfredi, Conservation Project. Oryx; 25(4): 199-205.

Quinnell, R., and A. Balmford. 1988. A future for Palawan's forests? Oryx; 22(1): 30-35.

Rabor, D. S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine Flora and Fauna, Vol. XI: Birds, Mammals. Natural Resources Management Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources and Univ. of the Philippines: 161-164.

*Sanborn, C.C. 1952. Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946-47. Fieldiana: Zoology; 33: 89-158.

*Wu Gui-sheng, Pang Jun-feng, and Zhang Ya-ping. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Suidae. Zoological Research; 27(2): 197-201.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References