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Ungulate Taxonomy
A new perspective from Groves and Grubb (2011)

Taxonomy (the study of classification) is a constantly-evolving field. Every year, changes to the "standard" list of ungulates (covering approximately 250 species) are proposed as new physical and genetic evidence becomes available: renaming subspecies as distinct species, separating (or uniting) genera, or naming species new to science. Most taxonomic changes are rather restricted in scale (usually reorganizing a species or genus). Rarely, however, entire orders are reviewed and revised: the ENTIRE scope of hoofed mammals receives such a treatment in Ungulate Taxonomy (Groves and Grubb, 2011).

Ungulate Taxonomy turns the classification of hoofed mammals on its head. Whereas traditional species lists rely on the Biological Species Concept (which differentiates species on the basis of "reproductive isolation", the lack of interbreeding in nature), Groves and Grubb have applied the Phylogenetic Species Concept (which separates species on the basis of "fixed heritable differences": measureable characters that are consistently different between taxa). This change in approach has had major implication on the number of species: Groves and Grubb recognize over 450 distinct ungulates. Simultaneously, however, the recognition of subspecies has sharply declined: under the Phylogenetic Species Concept, populations that can be differentiated are listed as separate species; those which cannot be are grouped as a single taxon.

The new approach to ungulate classification is presented below alongside the traditional species list (note that species fact sheets are accessible from the Ungulates of the World page). Such a radical departure from tradition often encounters great resistance, but the application of the Phylogenetic Species Concept to ungulate taxa is not brand-new: it is generally well-accepted for taxa like babirusas, chevrotains, and musk deer.

Continue below to the updated taxonomy, or keep exploring this site:

Ungulates of
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Traditional taxonomy

  New taxonomy proposed
by Groves and Grubb

Family Equidae
Equus africanus Equus africanus (African wild ass)
Equus ferus Equus ferus (tarpan)
Equus przewalskii
(Przewalski's horse)
Equus grevyi Equus grevyi (Grevy's zebra)
Equus hemionus Equus hemionus (Asian wild ass)
Equus hemippus
(Syrian wild ass)
Equus khur
(Indian wild ass)
Equus kiang Equus kiang (kiang)
Equus quagga Equus quagga (plains zebra)
Equus zebra Equus hartmannae (Hartmann's mountain zebra)
Equus zebra
(Cape mountain zebra)
Family Tapiridae
Tapirus bairdii Tapirella bairdii (Baird's tapir)
Tapirus indicus Acrocodia indica (Asian tapir)
Tapirus pinchaque Tapirus pinchaque (mountain tapir)
Tapirus terrestris Tapirus terrestris (South American tapir)
Ceratotherium simum

Ceratotherium simum (southern white rhinoceros)
Ceratotherium cottoni (northern white rhinoceros)

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran rhinoceros)
Diceros bicornis Diceros bicornis (black rhinoceros)
Rhinoceros sondaicus Rhinoceros sondaicus (Javan rhinoceros)
Rhinoceros unicornis Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)
Family Camelidae
Camelus ferus Camelus ferus (wild Bactrian camel)
Camelus dromedarius (Camelus dromedarius - domestic form)
Lama guanicoe Lama guanicoe (guanaco)
Vicugna vicugna Lama mensalis (Peruvian vicuna)
Lama vicugna (Chilean vicuna)
Family Suidae
Babyrousa babyrussa Babyrousa babyrussa (golden babirusa)
Babyrousa bolabatuensis Not listed
Babyrousa celebensis Babyrousa celebensis (Sulawesi babirusa)
Babyrousa togeanensis Babyrousa togeanensis (Togian babirusa)
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Hylochoerus ivoriensis (western forest hog)
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni (giant forest hog)
Hylochoerus rimator
(central African forest hog)
Phacochoerus aethiopicus Phacochoerus aethiopicus (desert warthog)
Phacochoerus africanus Phacochoerus africanus (common warthog)
Porcula salvania Porcula salvania (pygmy hog)
Potamochoerus larvatus Potamochoerus larvatus (bushpig)
Potamochoerus porcus Potamochoerus porcus (red river hog)
Sus ahoenobarbus Sus ahoenobarbus (Palawan wild pig)
Sus barbatus Sus barbatus (bearded pig)
Sus bucculentus Not listed
Sus cebifrons Sus cebifrons (Visayan wild pig)
Sus celebensis Sus celebensis (Sulawesi warty pig)
Sus oliveri Sus oliveri (Mindoro wild pig)
Sus philippensis Sus philippensis (Philippine wild)
Sus scrofa Sus chirodontus (Chinese wild pig)
Sus cristatus
(Indian wild pig)
Sus davidi (Pakistan wild pig)
Sus leucomystax (Japanese wild pig)
Sus moupinensis (Indochinese wild pig)
Sus scrofa (European wild pig)
Sus taevanys (Formosan wild pig)
Sus ussuricus
(Manchurian wild pig)
Sus vittatus
(banded pig, from Indonesia)
?Sus meridionalis
(from Sardinia and Corsica)
?Sus nigripes
(from Kyrgyzstan)
?Sus riukiuanus
(Ryukyu wild pig)
?Sus sibiricus
(from Mongolia and Transbaikalia)
Sus verrucosus Sus blouchi (Bawean warty pig)
Sus verrucosus (Javan warty pig)
Family Tayassuidae
Catagonus wagneri Catagonus wagneri (Chacoan peccary)
Pecari tajacu Pecari angulatus (North American collared peccary)
Pecari crassus
(Central American collared peccary)
Pecari tajacu (South American collared peccary)
Tayassu pecari Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary)
Choeropsis liberiensis Choeropsis heslopi (Nigerian pygmy hippopotamus)
Choeropsis liberiensis (western pygmy hippopotamus)
Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus amphibius (river hippopotamus)
Suborder Ruminantia
Family Tragulidae
Hyemoschus aquaticus Hyemoschus aquaticus (water chevrotain)
Moschiola indica Moschiola indica (Indian chevrotain)
Moschiola kathygre Moschiola kathygre (yellow-spotted chevrotain)
Moschiola meminna Moschiola meminna (white-spotted chevrotain)
Tragulus javanicus Tragulus javanicus (Javan chevrotain)
Tragulus kanchil Tragulus kanchil (lesser Oriental chevrotain)
Tragulus napu Tragulus napu (greater Oriental chevrotain)
Tragulus nigricans Tragulus nigricans (Balabac chevrotain)
Tragulus versicolor Tragulus versicolor (silver-backed chevrotain)
Tragulus williamsoni Tragulus williamsoni (Yunnan chevrotain)
Family Giraffidae
Giraffa camelopardalis Giraffa angolensis (Angolan giraffe)
Giraffa antiquorum
(Kordofan giraffe)
Giraffa camelopardalis
(Nubian or Rothschild's giraffe)
Giraffa giraffa (Cape giraffe)
Giraffa peralta
(West African giraffe)
Giraffa reticulata
(reticulated giraffe)
Giraffa thornicrofti
(Luangwa giraffe)
Giraffa tippelskirchi
(Masai giraffe)
Okapia johnstoni Okapia johnstoni (okapi)
Antilocapra americana Antilocapra americana (pronghorn)
Family Moschidae
Moschus anhuiensis Moschus anhuiensis (Anhui musk deer)
Moschus berezovskii Moschus berezovskii (forest musk deer)
Moschus chrysogaster Moschus chrysogaster (Himalayan musk deer)
Moschus cupreus Moschus cupreus (Kashmir musk deer)
Moschus fuscus Moschus fuscus (black musk deer)
Moschus leucogaster Moschus leucogaster (white-bellied musk deer)
Moschus moschiferus Moschus moschiferus (Siberian musk deer)
Family Cervidae
Subfamily Capreolinae
Alces alces Alces alces (Eurasian elk)
Alces americanus Alces americanus (American and east Siberian moose)
Blastocerus dichotomus Blastocerus dichotomus (marsh deer)
Capreolus capreolus Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)
Capreolus pygargus Capreolus pygargus (Siberian roe deer)
Hippocamelus antisensis Hippocamelus antisensis (taruka)
Hippocamelus bisulcus Hippocamelus busulcus (huemul)
Mazama americana
(red brockets)
Mazama americana (Guyana to northeast Brazil)
Mazama gualea
(coastal Ecuador)
Mazama jucunda
(southeast Brazil)
Mazama trinitatis
Mazama whitelyi
(southern Peru)
Mazama zamora
(southern Colombia to northeast Peru)
Mazama zetta
Mazama bororo Mazama bororo (bororo)
Mazama bricenii Mazama bricenii (grey dwarf brocket)
Mazama chunyi Mazama chunyi (dwarf brocket)
Mazama gouazoubira
(brown brockets)
Mazama cita (northern Venezuela)
Mazama gouazoubira
(southern Brazil to Uruguay)
Mazama murelia
(southeast Colombia and Ecuador)
Mazama permira
(Isla San Jose, Panama)
Mazama sanctaemartae
(northern Colombia)
Mazama superciliaris
(central and eastern Brazil)
Mazama tschudii
Mazama rondoni
(no locality given)
Mazama nana Mazama nana (lesser brocket)
Mazama nemorivaga Mazama nemorivaga (Amazonian brown brocket)
Mazama pandora Mazama pandora (Yucatan brown brocket)
Mazama rufina Mazama rufina (little red brocket)
Mazama temama Mazama temama (Central American red brocket)
Odocoileus hemionus Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer)
Odocoileus virginianus Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)
(With a note that the genus Odocoileus
requires significant taxonomic revision)
Ozotoceros bezoarticus Ozotoceros bezoarticus (pampas deer)
Pudu mephistophiles Pudu mephistophiles (northern pudu)
Pudu puda Pudu puda (southern pudu)
Rangifer tarandus Rangifer tarandus (reindeer, caribou)
Subfamily Cervinae
Axis axis Axis axis (Chital)
Axis calamianensis Axis calamianensis (Calamian deer)
Axis kuhlii Axis kuhlii (Bawean deer)
Axis porcinus Axis annamiticus (Indo-China hog deer)
Axis porcinus
(Indian hog deer)
Cervus elaphus
(red deer)

Cervus alashanicus (Alashan stag)
Cervus bactrianus (Bactrian stag)
Cervus canadensis (Asian/American wapiti)
Cervus corsicanus (Barbary red deer)
Cervus elaphus (West European red deer)
Cervus hanglu (Kashmir stag)
Cervus macneilli (Sichuan shou)
Cervus maral (Turkish red deer)
Cervus pannoniensis (East European red deer)
Cervus wallichii (Tibetan shou)
Cervus xanthopygus (Manchurian wapiti)
Cervus yarkandensis (Yarkand stag)

Cervus nippon
(sika deer)
Cervus aplodontus (from northern Japan)
Cervus hortulorum (from N. China and E. Russia)
Cervus nippon (from southern Japan)
Cervus pseudaxis (from Vietnam and southern China)
Cervus pulchellus (from Tsushima Island, Japan)
Cervus sichuanensis (from Sichuan, China)
Cervus taiouanus (from Taiwan)
Dama dama Dama dama (common fallow deer)
Dama mesopotamica Dama mesopotamica (Mesopotamian fallow deer)
Elaphodus cephalophus Elaphodus cephalophus (tufted deer)
Elaphurus davidianus Elaphurus davidianus (Pere David's deer)
Muntiacus atherodes Muntiacus atherodes (Bornean yellow muntjac)
Muntiacus crinifrons Muntiacus crinifrons (hairy-fronted muntjac)
Muntiacus feae Muntiacus feae (Fea's muntjac)
Muntiacus gongshanensis Muntiacus gongshanensis (Gongshan muntjac)
Muntiacus montanus Muntiacus montanus (Sumatran muntjac)
Muntiacus muntjak
(red muntjacs)

Muntiacus aureus (from northwest and central India)
Muntiacus malabaricus (from Sri Lanka and south India)
Muntiacus muntjak
(from Malay Peninsula and Indonesia)
Muntiacus nigripes (from Hainan, Vietnam and Yunnan)

Muntiacus puhoatensis Muntiacus puhoatensis (Pu Hoat muntjac)
Muntiacus putaoensis Muntiacus putaoensis (leaf der)
Muntiacus reevesi Muntiacus reevesi (Chinese muntjac)
Muntiacus rooseveltorum Muntiacus rooseveltorum (Roosevelt's muntjac)
Muntiacus truongsonensis Muntiacus truongsonensis (Annamite muntjac)
Muntiacus vaginalis Muntiacus vaginalis (northern red muntjac)
Muntiacus vuquangensis Muntiacus vuquangensis (giant muntjac)
Przewalskium albirostris Cervus albirostris (white-lipped deer)
Rucervus duvaucelii Rucervus branderi (hard-ground barasingha)
Rucervus duvaucelii
(western swamp deer)
Rucervis ranjitsinhi (eastern swamp deer)
Rucervus eldii Panolia eldii (Manipur Eld's deer)
Panolia siamensis (eastern Eld's deer)
Panolia thamin (thamin)
Rucervus schomburgki Rucervus schomburgki (Schomburgk's deer)
Rusa alfredi Cervus alfredi (Prince Alfred's deer)
Rusa marianna Cervus barandanus (Mindoro deer)
Cervus mariannus (Philippine deer)
Cervus nigellus (Mindanao mountain deer)
Rusa timorensis Cervus timorensis (rusa)
Rusa unicolor Cervus equinus (Southeast Asian sambar)
Cervus unicolor
(Indian sambar)
Subfamily Hydropotinae
Included within subfamily Capreolinae
Hydropotes inermis Hydropotes inermis (Chinese water deer)
Family Bovidae
Subfamily Aepycerotinae
Aepyceros melampus Aepyceros melampus (common impala)
Aepyceros petersi (black-faced impala)
Subfamily Alcelaphinae
Alcelaphus buselaphus Alcelaphus buselaphus (Bubal hartebest)
Alcelaphus caama (red hartebeest)
Alcelaphus cokii (kongoni)
Alcelaphus lelwel (Lelwel hartebeest)
Alcelaphus lichtensteini (Lichtenstein's hartebeest)
Alcelaphus major (western hartebeest)
Alcelaphus swaynei (Swayne's haterbeest)
Alcelaphus tora (tora hartebeest)
Beatragus hunteri Beatragus hunteri (hirola)
Connochaetes gnou Connochaetes gnou (black wildebeest)
Connochaetes taurinus Connochaetes albojubatus (eastern white-bearded wildebeest)
Connochaetes johnstoni (Johnston's wildebeest)
Connochaetes mearnsi (Serengeti white-bearded wildebeest)
Connochaetes taurinus
(blue wildebeest)
Damaliscus lunatus Damaliscus eurus (Ruaha topi)
Damaliscus jimela (Serengeti topi)
Damaliscus korrigum (korrigum)
Damaliscus lunatus (western tsessebe)
Damaliscus selousi (Guasin-Gishu topi)
Damaliscus superstes (Bangweule tsessebe)
Damaliscus tiang (tiang)
Damaliscus topi (coastal topi)
Damaliscus ugandae (Uganda topi)
Damaliscus pygargus Damaliscus phillipsi (blesbok)
Damaliscus pygargus
Subfamily Antilopinae
Ammodorcas clarkei Ammodorcas clarkei (dibatag)
Antidorcas marsupialis

Antidorcas angolensis (Angolan springbok)
Antidorcas hofmeyri (Kalahari springbok)
Antidorcas marsupialis
(Cape springbok)

Antilope cervicapra Antilope cervicapra (blackbuck)
Dorcatragus megalotis Dorcatragus megalotis (beira)
Eudorcas albonotata Eudorcas albonotata (Mongalla gazelle)
Eudorcas rufifrons Eudorcas rufifrons (red-fronted gazelle)
Eudorcas tilonura (Eritrean gazelle)
Eudorcas rufina Eudorcas rufina (red gazelle)
Eudorcas thomsonii Eudorcas nasalis (Serengeti Thomson's gazelle)
Eudorcas thomsoni
(eastern Thomson's gazelle)
Gazella arabica Gazella arabica (Farasan gazelle)
Gazella bennettii Gazella bennettii (Deccan chinkara)
Gazella christyi (Gujarat chinkara)
Gazella fuscifrons (eastern jebeer)
Gazella shikarii (western jebeer)
Gazella salinarum (Salt Range gazelle)
Gazella bilkis Gazella bilkis (Bilkis gazelle)
Gazella cuvieri Gazella cuvieri (Cuvier's gazelle)
Gazella dorcas Gazella dorcas (dorcas gazelle)
Gazella pelzelni (Pelzeln's gazelle)
Gazella gazella Gazella acaciae (acacia gazelle)
Gazella cora (Arabian desert gazelle)
Gazella dareshurii (Farrur gazelle)
Gazella erlangeri (Arabian coastal gazelle)
Gazella gazella (mountain gazelle)
Gazella karamii (Bushehr gazelle)
Gazella leptoceros Gazella leptoceros (slender-horned gazelle)
Gazella saudiya Gazella saudiya (Saudi gazelle)
Gazella spekei Gazella spekei (Speke's gazelle)
Gazella subgutturosa Gazella gracilicornis (Turkmen gazelle)
Gazella marica (Sand gazelle)
Gazella subgutturosa (Persian gazelle)
Gazella yarkandensis (Yarkand gazelle)
Litocranius walleri Litocranius sclateri (northern gerenuk)
Litocranius walleri
(southern gerenuk)
Madoqua guentheri Madoqua guentheri (Guenther's dik-dik)
Madoqua smithii (Smith's dik-dik)
Madoqua kirkii Madoqua cavendishi (Cavendish's dik-dik)
Madoqua damarensis (Damara dik-dik)
Madoqua hindei
(Hinde's dik-dik)
Madoqua kirkii
(Kirk's dik-dik)
Madoqua thomasi (Thomas's dik-dik)
Madoqua piacentinii Madoqua piacentinii (silver dik-dik)
Madoqua saltiana Madoqua hararensis (Harar dik-dik)
Madoqua lawrancei (Lawrance's dik-dik)
Madoqua phillipsi (Phillips's dik-dik)
Madoqua saltiana (Salt's dik-dik)
Madoqua swaynei (Swayne's dik-dik)
Nanger dama Nanger dama (dama gazelle)
Nanger granti Nanger granti (Grant's gazelle)
Nanger notata (Bright's gazelle)
Nanger petersi (Peters's gazelle)
Nanger soemmerringii Nanger soemmerringi (Soemmerring's gazelle)
Neotragus batesi Neotragus batesi (dwarf antelope)
Neotragus moschatus

Neotragus kirchenpaueri (mountain suni)
Neotragus livingstonianus (Livingstone's suni)
Neotragus moschatus (coastal suni)

Neotragus pygmaeus Neotragus pygmaeus (royal antelope)
Oreotragus oreotragus Oreotragus aceratos (Noack's klipspringer)
Oreotragus aureus (golden klipspringer)
Oreotragus centralis (Zambian klipspringer)
Oreotragus oreotragus (Cape klipspringer)
Oreotragus porteousi (Nigerian klipspringer)
Oreotragus saltatrixoides (Ethiopian klipspringer)
Oreotragus schillingsi (Masai klipspringer)
Oreotragus somalicus (Somali klipspringer)
Oreotragus stevensoni (Stevenson's klipspringer)
Oreotragus transvaalensis (Transvaal klipspringer)
Oreotragus tyleri (Angolan klipspringer)
Ourebia ourebi Ourebia hastata (central oribi)
Ourebia montana
(Sudan oribi)
Ourebia ourebi (southern oribi)
Ourebia quadriscopa (western oribi)
Procapra gutturosa Procapra gutturosa (Mongolian gazelle)
Procapra picticaudata Procapra picticaudata (Tibetan gazelle)
Procapra przewalskii Procapra przewalskii (Przewalski's gazelle)
Raphicerus campestris Raphicerus campestris (steenbok)
Raphicerus melanotis Raphicerus melanotis (Cape grysbok)
Raphicerus sharpei Raphicerus colonicus (Limpopo grysbok)
Raphicerus sharpei
(Sharpe's grysbok)
Saiga tatarica Saiga mongolica (Mongolian saiga)
Saiga tartarica
(western saiga)
Subfamily Bovinae
Bison bison Bos bison (American bison)
Bison bonasus Bos bonasus (wisent)
Bos caucasicus (Caucasian bison)
Bos gaurus Bos gaurus (gaur)
Bos javanicus Bos javanicus (banteng)
Bos mutus Bos mutus (yak)
Bos primigenius Bos primigenius (aurochs)
Bos sauveli Bos sauveli (kouprey)
Boselaphus tragocamelus Boselaphus tragolcamelus (nilgai)
Bubalus arnee Bubalus arnee (Asian wild buffalo)
Bubalus depressicornis Bubalus depressicornis (lowland anoa)
Bubalus mindorensis Bubalus mindorensis (tamaraw)
Bubalus quarlesi Bubalus quarlesi (mountain anoa)
Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Pseudoryx nghetinhensis (saola)
Syncerus caffer Syncerus brachyceros (Lake Chad buffalo)
Syncerus caffer (Cape buffalo)
Syncerus mathewsi (Virunga buffalo)
Syncerus nanus (forest buffalo)
Tetracerus quadricornis Tetracerus quadricornis (chowsingha)
Tragelaphus angasii Nyala angasii (nyala)
Tragelaphus buxtoni Tragelaphus buxtoni (mountain nyala)
Tragelaphus derbianus Taurotragus derbianus (giant eland)
Tragelaphus eurycerus Tragelaphus euryceros (bongo)
Tragelaphus imberbis Ammelaphus australis (southern lesser kudu)
Ammelaphus imberbis
(northern lesser kudu)
Tragelaphus oryx Taurotragus oryx (common eland)
Tragelaphus scriptus

Tragelaphus scriptus (western bushbuck)
Tragelaphus phaleratus (Central African bushbuck)
Tragelaphus bor (Nile bushbuck)
Tragelaphus meneliki (Menelik's bushbuck)
Tragelaphus decula (Lake Tana bushbuck)
Tragelaphus fasciatus
(eastern coastal bushbuck)
Tragelaphus ornatus (Chobe bushbuck)
Tragelaphus sylvaticus (Cape bushbuck)

Tragelaphus spekii Tragelaphus gratus (western sitatunga)
Tragelaphus larkenii (Nile sitatunga)
Tragelaphus selousi (Zambezi sitatunga)
Tragelaphus spekii (Lake Victoria sitatunga)
Tragelaphus sylvestris (Nkosi Island sitatunga)
?Tragelaphus ugallae (from Tanzania)
Tragelaphus strepsiceros Strepsiceros chora (northern kudu)
Strepsiceros cottoni (western kudu)
Strepsiceros strepsiceros (Cape kudu)
Strepsiceros zambesiensis (Zambezi kudu)
Subfamily Caprinae
Ammotragus lervia Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)
Arabitragus jayakari Arabitragus jayakari (Arabian tahr)
Budorcas taxicolor Budorcas bedfordi (golden takin)
Budorcas taxicolor (Mishmi takin)
Budorcas tibetanus (Sichuan takin)
Budorcas whitei (Bhutan takin)
Capra aegagrus Capra aegagrus (wild goat)
Capra caucasica Capra caucasica (west Caucasian tur)
Capra cylindricornis Capra cylindricornis (east Caucasian tur)
Capra falconeri Capra falconeri (Markhor)
Capra ibex Capra ibex (Alpine ibex)
Capra nubiana Capra nubiana (Nubian ibex)
Capra pyrenaica Capra pyrenaica (Spanish ibex)
Capra sibirica Capra sibirica (Siberian ibex)
Capra walie Capra walie (Walia ibex)
Capricornis crispus Capricornis crispus (Japanese serow)
Capricornis milneedwardsii Capricornis maritimus (Indochinese serow)
Capricornis milneedwardsi
(white-maned serow)
Capricornis rubidus Capricornis rubidus (Burmese red serow)
Capricornis sumatraensis Capricornis sumatraensis (Sumatran serow)
Capricornis swinhoei Capricornis swinhoii (Formosan serow)
Capricornis thar Capricornis thar (Himalayan serow)
Hemitragus jemlahicus Hemitragus jemlahicus (Himalayan tahr)
Naemorhedus baileyi Nemorhaedus baileyi (red goral)
Naemorhedus caudatus Nemorhaedus caudatus (long-tailed goral)
Naemorhedus goral Nemorhaedus bedfordi (Himalayan gray goral)
Nemorhaedus goral
(Himalayan brown goral)
Naemorhedus griseus Nemorhaedus evansi (Burmese goral)
Nemorhaedus griseus
(Chinese goral)
Nilgiritragus hylocrius Nilgiritragus hylocrius (Nilgiri tahr)
Oreamnos americanus Oreamnos americanus (Rocky Mountain goat)
Ovibos moschatus Ovibos moschatus (Muskox)
Ovis ammon

Ovis ammon (Altai argali)
Ovis collium (Kazakhstan argali)
Ovis darwini (Gobi argali)
Ovis hodgsoni (Tibetan argali)
Ovis jubata (Shansi argali)
Ovis karelini (Tianshan argali)
Ovis nigrimontana (Karatau argali)
Ovis polii (Marco Polo sheep)

Ovis canadensis Ovis canadensis (bighorn sheep)
Ovis dalli Ovis dalli (Dall's sheep)
Ovis nivicola Ovis nivicola (snow sheep)
Ovis orientalis

Ovis arabica (Oman wild sheep)
Ovis bochariensis (Bukhara urial)
Ovis cycloceros (Afghan urial)
Ovis gmelini (Armenian sheep)
Ovis isphaganica (Isfahan sheep)
Ovis laristanica (Laristan sheep)
Ovis punjabensis (Punjab urial)
Ovis severtzovi (Kyzylkum sheep)
Ovis vignei (Ladakh urial)

Pantholops hodgsonii Pantholops hodgsonii (chiru)
Pseudois nayaur Pseudois nayaur (bharal)
Pseudois schaeferi Pseudois schaeferi (dwarf blue sheep)
Rupicapra pyrenaica Rupicapra ornata (Abruzzi chamois)
Rupicapra parva (Cantabrian chamois)
Rupicapra pyrenaica
(Pyrenean chamois)
Rupicapra rupicapra Rupicapra asiatica (Asia Minor chamois)
Rupicapra carpatica (Carpathian chamois)
Rupicapra rupicapra (Alpine chamois)
?Rupicapra balcanica (Balkan chamois)
Subfamily Cephalophinae
Cephalophus adersi Cephalophus adersi (Aders's duiker)
Cephalophus callipygus Cephalophus callipygus (Peters's duiker)
Cephalophus dorsalis Cephalophus castaneus (eastern bay duiker)
Cephalophus dorsalis
(western bay duiker)
Cephalophus harveyi Cephalophus harveyi (Harvey's duiker)
Cephalophus jentinki Cephalophus jentinki (Jentink's duiker)
Cephalophus leucogaster Cephalophus arrhenii (Uele white-bellied duiker)
Cephalophus leucogaster
(western white-bellied duiker)
Cephalophus natalensis Cephalophus natalensis (Natal red duiker)
Cephalophus niger Cephalophus niger (black duiker)
Cephalophus nigrifrons Cephalophus fosteri (Mount Elgon duiker)
Cephalophus hooki (Mount Kenya duiker)
Cephalophus hypoxanthus (Itombwe duiker)
Cephalophus nigrifrons (black-fronted duiker)
Cephalophus rubidus (Rwenzori duiker)
Cephalophus ogilbyi

Cephalophus brookei (Brooke's duiker)
Cephalophus crusalbum (white-legged duiker)
Cephalophus ogilbyi (Ogilby's duiker)

Cephalophus rufilatus Cephalophus rufilatus (red-flanked duiker)
Cephalophus silvicultor Cephalophus curticeps (eastern yellow-backed duiker)
Cephalophus silvicultor
(western yellow-backed duiker)
Cephalophus spadix Cephalophus spadix (Abbott's duiker)
Cephalophus weynsi Cephalophus johnstoni (Johnston's duiker)
Cephalophus lestradei (Lestrade's duiker)
Cephalophus weynsi (Weyns's duiker)
Cephalophus zebra Cephalophus zebra (zebra duiker)
Philantomba maxwellii Philantomba maxwelli (Maxwell's duiker)
Philantomba walteri (Verheyen's duiker)
Philantomba monticola Philantomba aequatorialis (eastern blue duiker)
Philantomba anchietae (Angolan blue duiker)
Philantomba bicolor (Zimbabwe blue duiker)
Philantomba congicus (western blue duiker)
Philantomba defriesi (Zambian blue duiker)
Philantomba hecki (Malawi blue duiker)
Philantomba lugens (mountain blue duiker)
Philantomba melanorheus (Bioko blue duiker)
Philantomba monticola (Cape blue duiker)
Philantomba simpsoni (Simpson's blue duiker)
Sylvicapra grimmia Sylvicapra coronatus (crowned duiker)
Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)
Sylvicapra pallidior (Sahel duiker)
Subfamily Hippotraginae
Addax nasomaculatus Addax nasomaculatus (addax)
Hippotragus equinus Hippotragus equinus (roan antelope)
Hippotragus leucophaeus Hippotragus leucophaeus (blaubok)
Hippotragus niger Hippotragus niger (southern sable antelope)
Hippotragus roosevelti (Roosevelt's sable antelope)
Oryx beisa Oryx beisa (beisa oryx)
Oryx callotis
(fringe-eared oryx)
Oryx gallarum
(Galla oryx)
Oryx dammah Oryx dammah (scimitar-horned oryx)
Oryx gazella Oryx gazella (gemsbok)
Oryx leucoryx Oryx leucoryx (Arabian oryx)
Subfamily Reduncinae
Kobus ellipsiprymnus Kobus defassa (defassa waterbuck)
Kobus ellipsiprymnus
(ellipsen waterbuck)
Kobus kob

Kobus kob (Buffon's kob)
Kobus leucotis
(white-eared kob)
Kobus loderi
(Loder's kob)
Kobus thomasi
(Uganda kob)

Kobus leche Kobus anselli (Upemba lechwe)
Kobus kafuensis
(Kafue Flats lechwe)
Kobus leche
(Red lechwe)
Kobus robertsi
(Roberts' lechwe)
Kobus smithemani (black lechwe)
Kobus megaceros Kobus megaceros (Nile lechwe)
Kobus vardonii Kobus vardoni (puku)
Pelea capreolus Pelea capreolus (rhebok)
Redunca arundinum Redunca arundinum (southern reedbuck)
Redunca occidentalis
(Malawi reedbuck)
Redunca fulvorufula Redunca adamauae (Adamawa reedbuck)
Redunca chanleri (Chanler's mountain reedbuck)
Redunca fulvorufula (Southern mountain reedbuck)
Redunca redunca Redunca bohor (bohor reedbuck)
Redunca cottoni
(Sudan reedbuck)
Redunca nigeriensis
(Nigerian reedbuck)
Redunca redunca (western reedbuck)
Literature Cited

Groves, C., and P. Grubb. 2011. Ungulate Taxonomy. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 2005.  Mammal Species of the World (3rd Edition).  Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.