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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Syncerus caffer
African buffalo
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Literature Cited

Alden, P. C., R. D. Estes, D. Schlitter, and B. McBride. 1995. National Audubon Society Field Guide to African Wildlife. New York: Chanticleer Press.

Buchholtz, C. 1990. Cattle. In Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Edited by S. P. Parker. New York: McGraw-Hill. Volume 5, pp. 360-417.

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2009. Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 22 May 2009. Available online at the CITES website.

East, R. [compiler]. 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN.

IUCN Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Syncerus caffer. In IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London and New York: NaturalWorld.

Nowak, R. M. [editor]. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World (Fifth Edition). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 2005.  Mammal Species of the World (3rd Edition).  Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.

Additional Resources

Baldwin, C. L., M. N. Malu, and J. G. Grootenhuis. 1988. Evaluation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and their parasite strain specificity from African buffalo infected with Theileria parva. Parasite Immunology 10: 393-403.

Beekman, J. H. and Prins, H. H. T. 1989. Feeding strategies of sedentary large herbivores in East Africa, with emphasis on the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). African Journal of Ecology 27: 129-147.

Blaszkiewitz, B. 1999. Africana 3: Two new open-air enclosures for African Cape and Forest Buffalo in the Berlin-Friedrichsfelde Zoo. Zoologische Garten; 69(4): 225-230.

Boitani, L., and S. Bartoli. 1982. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. New York: Fireside/Simon & Schuster, Inc. Entry 384.

Brown, J. L., D. E.Wildt, J. R. Raath, V. de Vos, J. G. Howard, D. L. Janssen, S. B. Citino, and M. Bush. 1991. Impact of season on seminal characteristics and endocrine status of adult free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 92: 47-57.

Butynski, T. M., C. D. Schaaf, and G. W. Hearn. 1997. African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) extirpated on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Journal of African Zoology; 111(1): 57-61.

Chamberlan, C., C. Marechal, and C. Maurois. 1999. Estimation of the population of forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) in Odzala National Park, Republic of Congo. Cahiers D'Ethologie; 18(2): 295-298.

Condy, J.B. and R. S. Hedger. 1978. Experiences in the establishment of a herd of foot-and-mouth disease free African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). South African Journal of Wildlife Research; 8: 87-89.

Cribiu, E. P., and S. P. Popescu. 1980. Chromosome constitution of a hybrid between east African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and dwarf forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus). Annales de Genetique et de Selection Animale; 12(3): 291-293.

Drager, N., and G. D. Paine. 1980. Demodicosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16(4): 521-524.

Foggin, C. M., and R. D. Taylor. 1996. Management and utilization of the African buffalo in Zimbabwe. In The African Buffalo as a Game Ranch Animal. Edited by B. L. Penzhorn. South African Veterinary Association Wildlife Group, Onderstepoort. pp. 144-162.

*Green, A. A. 1979. Density estimate of the larger mammals of Arli National Park, Upper Volta. Mammalia; 43(1): 59-70.

Happold, D. C. D. 1987. The Mammals of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hunter, C. G. 1996. Land uses on the Botswana/Zimbabwe border and their effects on buffalo. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 26(4): 136-150.

IEA (Institute of Applied Ecology) 1998. Syncerus caffer. In African Mammals Databank - A Databank for the Conservation and Management of the African Mammals Vol 1 and 2. Bruxelles: European Commission Directorate. Available online at the African Mammals Databank.

Mahaney, W. C. 1987. Behaviour of the African buffalo on Mount Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 25: 199-202.

Mloszewski, M. J. 1983. The Behavior and Ecology of the African Buffalo. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Mollel, C. L. 1979. The incidence of hernia in the East African buffalo. African Journal of Ecology 17: 45-46.

O'Ryan, C., E. H. Harley, M. W. Bruford, M. Beaumont, R. K. Wayne, and M. I. Cherry. 1998. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in fragmented South African buffalo populations. Animal Conservation 1: 85-94.

Peters, J. 1988. Osteomorphological features of the appedicular skeleton of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Sparrman, 1779) and of domestic cattle (Bos primigenius). Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 53: 108-123.

Price Forbes Chair in Wildlife. 1996. Bibliography of the African buffalo. In The African Buffalo as a Game Ranch Animal. Edited by B. L. Penzhorn. South African Veterinary Association Wildlife Group, Onderstepoort. pp. 163-188.

Prins, H. H. T. 1989. Buffalo herd structure and its repercussions for condition of individual African buffalo cows. Ethology 81: 47-71.

Prins, H. H. T. 1989. Condition changes and choice of social environment in African buffalo bulls. Behaviour 108(3-4): 297-324.

Simonsen, B. T., H. R. Segismund, and P. Arctander. 1998. Population structure of African buffalo inferred from mtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci: high variation but low differentiation. Molecular Ecology 7: 225-237.

Spinage, C. A., and W. A. B. Brown. 1988. Age determination of the West African buffalo (Syncerus caffer brachyceros) and the constancy of tooth wear. African Journal of Ecology 26: 221-227.

Taylor, R. D. 1988. Age determination of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Sparrman) in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 26: 207-220.

Teixeira, M., and B. Kramer. 1993. The adrenal gland of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): a light and electron microscopic study. South African Journal of Zoology 28(1): 13-17.

Wenink, P. W., A. F. Groen, M. E. Roelke-Parker, and H. H. T. Prins. 1998. African buffalo maintain high genetic diversity in the major histocompatibility complex in spite of historically known population bottlenecks. Molecular Ecology 7: 1315-1322.

Whyte, I. J. 1996. The management of large buffalo populations. In The African Buffalo as a Game Ranch Animal. Edited by B. L. Penzhorn. South African Veterinary Association Wildlife Group, Onderstepoort. pp. 21-36.

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