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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Rusa alfredi
Visayan spotted deer
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Literature Cited

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2009. Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 22 May 2009. Available online at the CITES website.

Cox, R. 1987. The Philippine spotted deer and the Visayan warty pig. Oryx 21(1): 37-42.

Geist, V. 1998. Three-pronged Old World deer. In Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. By Valerius Geist. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1998. pp. 55-80.

Grubb, C., and C. P. Groves. 1983. Notes on the taxonomy of the deer (Mammalia: Cervidae) of the Philippines. Zoologischer Anzeiger; 210 (1-2): 119-144.

ISIS (International Species Information System). 2010 Specimen Records.

Nowak, R. M. [editor]. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World (Fifth Edition). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Oliver, W. L. R., C. R. Cox, and L. L. Dolar. 1991. The Philippine spotted deer conservation project. Oryx; 25(4): 199-205.

Oliver, W., J. MacKinnon, L. Heaney, and E. Lastica. 2008. Rusa alfredi. In IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Rabor, D. S. 1977. Philippine Birds and Mammals: A project of the U. P. Science Education Center. Quezon City: University of Philippines Press.

Sclater, P. L. 1870. (Description of Cervus alfredi). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London; 1870: 380-381.

Whitehead, K. G. 1993. The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, Inc.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 1993. Mammal Species of the World (Second Edition). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.

Additional Resources

Alcala, E. L. 1993. Blood values of the endangered Philippine spotted deer (Cervus alfredi Sclater). Asia Life Sciences; 2(2): 235-240.

Alcala, E. L. 1995. Aspects of veterinary care and management of the Philippine spotted deer (Cervus alfredi, Sclater) in captivity. Silliman Journal; 37(2): 1-17.

Banks, C. 1997. Melbourne Zoo's partnership role in the conservation of threatened endemic Philippine fauna. Sylvatrop; 5(1-2): 105-112.

Cox, C. R. 1985. A field survey of the distribution and conservation of the wild pig (Sus barbatus cebifrons) and Prince Alfred's spotted rusa (Cervus alfredi) in the Visayan Islands, Republic of the Philippines. Unpublished report to the IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group. 27 pp.

Cranbrook, Earl of. 1992. Mammals of South-East Asia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Deer Specialist Group. 1990. Deer Specialist Group Newsletter. IUCN Species Survival Commission: no 8.

Evans, T. D., G. C. L. Dutson, and T. M. Brooks [editors]. 1993. Cambridge Philippines Rainforest Project 1991, Final Report, Study Report no 54. BirdLife International, Cambridge, 96 pp.

Frädrich, H. 1987. Philippinen-Hirsche im Zoo Berlin - Ein Rückblick? Bongo 12: 13-16.

Frädrich, H. 1987. The husbandry of tropical and temperate cervids in the West Berlin Zoo. In Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Edited by C. M. Wemmer. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 422-428.

Heaney & Regalado. 1998. Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rain Forest. The Field Museum

Lepiten, M. V. 1995. Demographic assessment and captive management of the Philippine Spotted Deer (Cervus alfredi). Unpublished dissertation to the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust and University of Kent, 32pp.

Lernould, J-M. 1993. Philippine spotted deer (Cervus alfredi) Conservation Program: report on progress to 31st December 1992. Parc Zoologique et Botanique, Mulhouse, France. Unpublished. 2 pp.

*Maala, C. P. 2001. Endangered Philippine wildlife species with special reference to the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) and tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis). Journal of International Development and Cooperation; 8: 1-17.

Montulet, J-P. 1984. Les Cervides du Monde Entier. Paris: Editions, Lechevalier.

*Oliver, W. L. R. 1993. Threatened endemic artiodactyls of the Philippines: status and future priorities. International Zoo Yearbook; 32: 131-144.

*Oliver, W. L. R. 1996. Philippine spotted deer (Cervus alfredi) conservation program. IUCN/SSC Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 13: 13-14.

Oliver, W. L. R., and C. R. Cox. 1990. The present status of captive Philippine deer, Cervus alfredi and C. marianus. Unpublished report to Zoological Society of San Diego and the Mulhouse Zoo. 9 pp.

Oliver, W. L. R., and C. R. Cox. 1990. Philippine spotted deer (Cervus alfredi) captive breeding programme: notes on 'World Herd' founders (as of May, 1990). Unpublished report to Zoological Society of San Diego and the Mulhouse Zoo. 4 pp.

Oliver, W. L. R., and R. Wirth. 1996. Conservation programmes for threatened endemic species in the Philippines. International Zoo News; 43(5): 337-348; No 270

Oliver, W. L. R., L. L. Dolar, and E. Alcala. 1992. The Philippine spotted deer, Cervus alfredi Sclater, conservation program. Silliman Journal; 36(1): 47-54.

Paguntalan, L. M. J. 1999. Habitat utilization of the Philippine Spotted Deer (Cervus alfredi Sclater) in Calinawan, Enrique Villanueva, Sibula, Negros Oriental, Philippines. Unpublished report to Centre for Tropical Conservation Studies, Silliam University, Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental. 18pp.

*Rabor, D. S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine Flora and Fauna, Vol. XI: Birds, Mammals. Natural Resources Management Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources and Univ. of the Philippines.

*Sanborn, C.C. 1952. Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946-47. Fieldiana: Zoology; 33: 89-158.

Taylor, E. H. 1934. Philippine Land Mammals. Philippine Bureau of Science Monograph, no 30, 548 pp.

Villamor, C. I. 1992. Deer captive breeding practices at a glance. Canopy International; 17(3): 10-12.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References