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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Raphicerus campestris
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Literature Cited

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2009. Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 22 May 2009. Available online at the CITES website.

East, R. [compiler]. 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN.

IUCN Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Raphicerus campestris. In IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London and New York: NaturalWorld.

Nowak, R. M. [editor]. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World (Fifth Edition). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wallace, C. and N. Fairall. 1967. The chromosomes of the steenbok. South African Journal of Medical Science; 32: 55-57.

Walther, F. R. 1990. Duikers and Dwarf Antelopes. In Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Edited by S. P. Parker. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 325-343.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 1993. Mammal Species of the World (Second Edition). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.

Additional Resources

Cloete, G., and O. B. Kok. 1986. Aspects of the water economy of steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) in the Namib Desert. Madoqua; 14(4): 375-387.

Cloete, G., and O. B. Kok. 1986. The distribution and density of steenboks in the Kuiseb River Canyon, South-West Africa. Madoqua; 14(4): 421-424.

Dasmann, R.F. and A. S. Mossman. 1962. Reproduction in some ungulates in Southern Rhodesia. Journal of Mammalogy; 43: 533-537

du Toit, J. T. 1990. Home range-body mass relations. A field study on African browsing ruminants. Oecologia (Berlin); 85(2): 301-303.

du Toit, J. T. 1990. Feeding height stratification among African browsing ruminants. African Journal of Ecology; 28(1): 55-62.

*du Toit, J. T. 1993. The feeding ecology of a very small ruminant, the steenbok (Raphicerus campestris). African Journal of Ecology; 31(1): 35-48.

*du Toit, J. T., and C. A. Yetman. 2005. Effects of body size on the diurnal activity budgets of African browsing ruminants. Oecologia; 143(2): 317-325.

Gerneke, W. H., and M. Cohen. 1978. The micro-morphology of the glands of the infraorbital cutaneous sinus of the steenbok, Raphicerus campestris. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research; 45(2): 59-66

*Haim, A., and J. D. Skinner. 1991. A comparative study of metabolic rates and thermoregulation of two African antelopes, the steenbok Raphicerus campestris and the blue duiker Cephalophus monticola. Journal of Thermal Biology; 16(3): 145-148.

Hart, L. A., B. L. Hart, and V. J. Wilson. 1996. Grooming rates in klipspringer and steinbok reflect environmental exposure to ticks. African Journal of Ecology; 34(1): 79-82.

Hay, L., and W. Van Hoven. 1988. Tannins and digestibility in the steenbok (Raphicerus campestris). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A: Physiology; 91(3): 509-511.

IEA (Institute of Applied Ecology). 1998. Raphicerus campestris. In African Mammals Databank - A Databank for the Conservation and Management of the African Mammals Vol 1 and 2. Bruxelles: European Commission Directorate. Available online at the African Mammals Databank.

Mattiello, S., C. Zanoni, H. Du Plessis, E. Heinzl, and M. C. Crimella. 2004. Habitat use and group size of African wild ungulates in a Namibian game ranch. Game & Wildlife Science; 21(4, Sp. Iss. SI): 735-745.

*Norton, P. M. 1985. Habitat separation of four small antelope in the Gamka Mountain Nature Reserve, Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science; 81(11): 692.

Oates, L. G. 1972. A note on the sex ratio of steenbok, Raphicerus campestris, in Transvaal lowland Mopane colophospermum mopane woodland. Koedoe 15: 141-142.

Paias Simoes, A., and J. Crawford-Cabral. 1990. Notice on large-hoofed steenbok, Raphicerus campestris (Mammalia: Artiodactyla), from Angola. Garcia de Orta, Série de Zoologica: Lisboa; 15(2): 1-8.

Penzhorn, B. L. 1971. A note on the sex ratio of steinbok Raphicerus campestris in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe; 14: 61-64.

Robinson, M. D. 1977. An observation on parental care of young in the steenbok in south-west Africa. Madoqua; 10(3): 215-216.

Rowe-Rowe, D. T. 1971. Sex ratios of steenbok, Raphicerus campestris, seen in 2 southern African National Parks. Koedoe 14: 55-59.

Stuart, C. T. 1975. The sex ratio of steenbok, Raphicerus campestris, in the Namib Desert Park, south-west Africa. Madoqua; Series II 4(74-80): 93-94

Underwood, R. 1983. The feeding behavior of grazing African ungulates. Behaviour; 84(3-4): 195-243.

Wilson, V. J., and M. A. Kerr. 1969. Brief notes on reproduction in steenbok, Raphicerus campestris. Arnoldia (Rhodesia); 4(23): 1-5.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References