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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Pseudoryx nghetinhensis
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Literature Cited

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2009. Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 22 May 2009. Available online at the CITES website.

Dung, V. V., P. M. Giao, N. N. Chinh, D. Tuoc, and J. MacKinnon. 1993. A new species of living bovid from Vietnam. Nature; 363: 443-445.

Dung, V. V., P. M. Giao, N. C. Chinh, D. Tuoc, and J. MacKinnon. 1994. Discovery and conservation of the Vu Quang ox in Vietnam. Oryx; 28(1): 16-21.

Hassanin, A., and E. J. P. Douzery. 1999. Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B; 266(1422): 893-900.

Hernandez-Fernandez, M., and E. S. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Review; 80: 269-302.

Kemp, N., M. Dilger, N. Burgess, and Chu Van Dung. 1997. The saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis in Vietnam: new information on distribution and habitat preferences and conservation needs. Oryx 31(1): 37-45.

Nadler, T. and C. Phuong. 1994. Zur Haltung des Vu Quang-Wildrindes, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis [Keeping of the V-Quang ox, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis]. Zoologische Garten; 64(6): 313-319.

Robichaud, W. G. 1998. Physical and behavioral description of a captive saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis. Journal of Mammalogy; 79(2): 394-405.

Robichaud, W. 1999. Saola Conservation Action Plan for Lao PDR: 1999 Revision. Wildlife Conservation Society and IUCN. Vientiane.

Robichaud, W., and R. Timmins. 2004. The natural history of saola and the species' distribution in Laos. In Rediscovering the Saola: Proceedings of "Rediscovering the Saola - A Status Review and Planning Workshop". Edited by J. Hardcastle, S. Cox, Nguyen Thi Dao and A. Grieser Johns. WWF Indochina Programme, Hanoi.

Saola Working Group. 2009. From Plans to Action: Proceedings of the First Meeting of the Saola Working Group. IUCN Lao PDR Country Programme and the Saola Working Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group. Vientiane.

Timmins, R. J., W. G. Robichaud, B. Long, S. Hedges, R. Steinmetz, A. Abramov, Do Tuoc, and D. P. Mallon. 2008. Pseudoryx nghetinhensis. In IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Additional Resources

Anon. 1993. Body found: mystery Vietnamese horns gain head and legs. BBC Wildlife 11(7): 60.

*Ahrens, E. D. Graphodatskaya, B. X. Nguyen, and G. Stranzingera. 2005. Cytogenetic comparison of saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) and cattle (Bos taurus) using G- and Q-banding and FISH. Cytogenetic and Genome Research; 111(2): 147-151.

Dang Huy Huynh, Pham Trong Anh, Hoang Minh Khien, Le Xuan Canh, Tran Van Thang, and Dang Huy Phuong. 1997. Dan lieu bo sung ve vung phan bo cua Sao La (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) o Viet Nam [Supplementary data about the distribution area of Saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis in Vietnam]. Tap Chi Sinh Hoc; 19(1): 16-19, Thang 3.

Dung, V. V., N. N. Chinh, A. Ebregt, and C. Santiapillai. 1995. The status of the newly discovered large mammal, the long-horned bovid, in Vietnam. Tigerpaper (Bangkok); 22(2): 13-19.

Evans, T. D., J. W. Duckworth, and R. J. Timmins. 2000. Field observations of larger mammals in Laos, 1994-1995. Mammalia; 64(1): 55-100.

Feiler, A., T. Nadler, W. Peter, and C. Dose. 1996. Neuentdeckte Saugetiere in Vietnam: Verbreitung, Biologie, Taxonomie und Schutz [Newly discovered mammals in Vietnam: distribution, biology, taxonomy and protection]. Zoologische Gesellschaft fuer Arten und Populationsschutz E. V. Mitteilungen; 12(1): 4-6.

Feiler, A., and T. Nadler. 1997. Recently discovered mammals in Vietnam: Present results on taxonomy, zoogeography, status and on the protection of the animals (Mammalia). Zoologische Abhandlungen Dresden; 49(9-21): 331-335.

*Gatesy, J., and P. Arctander. 2000. Hidden morphological support for the phylogenetic placement of Pseudoryx nghetinhensis with bovine bovids: a combined analysis of gross anatomical evidence and DNA sequences from five genes. Systematic Biology; 49(3): 515-538.

*Hardcastle, J., with S. Cox, T. D. Nguyen, and A. G. Johns. 2004. Proceedings of the "Rediscovering the saola - a status review and conservation planning workshop". Published by WWF Indochina Program.

Henshaw, J. 1997. Status of the saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis. Oryx; 31(2): 89-91.

*MacKinnon, J. 2000. New mammals in the 21st century? Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden; 87(1): 63-66.

*Nguyen, T. T., F. Menetrey, S. Genini, V. L. Nguyen, P. Vogeli, B. X. Nguyen, and G. Stranzinger. 2005. Application of bovine microsatellite markers on Saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis). Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics; 122(3): 195-198.

*Nguyen, T. T., B. X. Nguyen, and G. Stranzinger. 2005. Characterization of G-banded chromosomes of a female saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis, 2n=50) and X chromosome identification by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization. Cytogenetic and Genome Research; 109(4): 502-506.

Obara, H. 1994. A new species of living bovid from Vietnam. Biological Sciences (Tokyo); 46(3): 155-158.

Pfeffer, P. 1994. Les premieres photos du sao la des montagnes du Viet Nam: des documents exceptionnels. Courrier de la Nature; 146: 13.

Robichaud, W.G. 1997. Saola conservation action plan for Lao PDR. Unpublished report, Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane.

Schaller, G. 1998. On the Trail of New Species. International Wildlife; 28(4): 36-43.

Schaller, G., and A. Rabinowitz. 1994. The saola or spindlehorn bovid Pseudoryx nghetinhensis in Laos. Oryx; 29: 107-114.

*Shuker, K. 1993. The Lost Ark: new and rediscovered animals of the Twentieth Century. London: HarperCollins Publishers.

Thomas, H. 1994. Cranial anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of a new bovine (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) discovered in the Vietnamese Annamite mountain range. Mammalia 58(3): 453-481.

Tuoc, D., V. V. Dung, S. Dawson, P. Arctander, and J. MacKinnon. 1994. Introduction of a new large mammal species in Vietnam. Science and Technology News. Hanoi: Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, Ministry of Forestry (in Vietnamese).

*Weintraub, B. 1995. First look at new Asian mammal. National Geographic; 187(1): Geographica.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References