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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Bubalus quarlesi
Mountain anoa
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Literature Cited

Buchholtz, C. 1990. Cattle. In Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Edited by S. P. Parker. New York: McGraw-Hill. Volume 5, pp. 360-417.

Burton, J. A., S. Hedges, and A. H. Mustari. 2005. The taxonomic status, distribution and conservation of the lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi. Mammal Review; 35(1): 25-50.

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2009. Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 22 May 2009. Available online at the CITES website.

Feer, F. 1994. Observations ethologiques sur Bubalus (Anoa) quarlesi Ouwens, 1910 (Ruminantia, Bovidae) en captivite. [Ethological observations on Bubalus (Anoa) quarlesi Ouwens, 1910 (Ruminantia, Bovidae) in captivity]. Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkunde; 59(3): 139-152.

Groves, C. P. 1969. Systematics of the anoa (Mammalia, Bovidae). Beaufortia; 17: 1-12.

National Research Council. 1983. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.

Nowak, R. M. [editor]. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World (Fifth Edition). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Schreiber, A., I. Seibold, G. Notzold, and M. Wink. 1999. Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.). Journal of Heredity 90(1): 165-176.

Semiadi, G., J. Burton, A. Schreiber, and A. H. Mustari. 2008. Bubalus quarlesi. In IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Sugiharta, A. 1994. Abundance and habitat characterization of mountain anoas in Besoa, Lore Lindu National Park, Indonesia. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, New Mexico State University, USA.

Whitten, A.J., M. Mustafa, and G. S. Henderson. 1987. The Ecology of Sulawesi. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 1993. Mammal Species of the World (Second Edition). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.

Additional Resources

Bartikova, J. and Dobroruka, L.J. 1974. Nektere vnejsi znaky anoa horskeho, Bubalus (Anoa) quarlesi (Ouwens, 1910). Lynx Series Nova 15:58–62.

Foead, N. 1992. Studi Habitat dan Pakan Anoa Gunung [Bubalus (Anoa) quarlesi, Ouwen] Di Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah. Unpublished thesis, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Groves, C. P. 1982 Antilope depressicornis H. Smith, 1827, and Anoa quarlesi Ouwens, 1910 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation. Bull. Zool. Nom. 39: 281-2.

Hedges, S. in prep. Asian Wild Cattle and Buffaloes: Status Report and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Jahja, M.M. 1987. The possibility of breeding anoa in captivity: an alternative for conservation of the species. Biotrop Special Publication No.30:101–108.

Kakoi, H., T. Namikawa, O. Takenaka, A. Takenaka, T. Amano, and H. Martojo. 1994. Divergence between the Anoas of Sulawesi and the Asiatic water buffaloes, inferred from their complete amino acid sequences of hemoglobin beta chains. Zeitschrift fuer Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung; 32(1): 1-10.

Kikkawa, Y., H. Yonekawa, H. Suzuki, and T. Amano. 1997. Analysis of genetic diversity of domestic water buffaloes and anoas based on variations in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b. Animal Genetics 28(3): 195-201.

Meijer, W. 1983. Botanical explorations in Celebes and Bali. National Geographic Society Research Report 1976 Projects: 583-605.

Melisch, R. 1995. Anoa threatened by souvenir trade in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx; 29(4): 224–225.

Mustari, A.H. 1995. Population and Behaviour of Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis Smith) in Tanjung Amolengu Wildlife Reserve South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Forestry Science, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany.

O'Brien, T.G. and Kinnaird, M.F. 1996. Changing populations of birds and mammals in North Sulawesi. Oryx 30(2): 150-156.

Pitra, C., R. Furbass, and H. M. Seyfert. 1997. Molecular phylongeny of the tribe Bovini (Mammalia: Artiodactyla): alternative placement of the Anoa. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10(4), 589-600.

Schreiber, A. and Nötzold, G. 1995. One EEP, but how many anoas? In EEP Yearbook 1994/95. Edited by F. Rietkerk, K. Brouwer and S. Smits. EAZA/EEP Executive Office, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp.419–424.

Schreiber, A., Nötzold, G. and Held, M. 1993. Molecular and chromosomal evolution in Anoas (Bovidae: Bubalus spec.). Zeitschrift fuer Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 31(1): 64-79.

Shuker, K. 1993. The Lost Ark: new and rediscovered animals of the Twentieth Century. London: HarperCollinsPublishers.

Tanaka, K., C. D. Solis, J. S. Masangkay, K. I. Maeda, Y. Kawamoto, and T. Namikawa. 1996. Phylogenetic relationship among all living species of the genus Bubalus based on DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Biochemical Genetics; 34(11-12): 443-452.

Thornback, J. 1983. Wild cattle, bison and buffaloes, their status and potential value. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.

Tikupadang, T., H. Gunawan, and M. Sila. 1994. Habitat dan Populasi Anoa Dataram Tinggi (Bubalus quarlesi, K.MacKinnon) di Cagar Alam Faruhumpenai di Kabupaten Luwu, Sulawesi Selatan. Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan, 8(1), 27-37.

Wind, J., and M. Amir. 1978. Some notes on anoa (Bubalus spp.) in Lore Kalamanta. Unpubl. ms.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References