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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Axis porcinus
Hog deer
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Literature Cited

Acharjyo, L.N., and Mishra, C.G. (1981). Notes on weight and size at birth of eight species of Indian wild ungulates in captivity. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 78(2): 373-375.

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna) (2013). Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 12 June 2013. Available online at the CITES website.

Dhungel, S.K., and O'Gara, B.W. (1991). The ecology of the hog deer in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Wildlife Monographs (119): 1-40.

Odden, M., Wegge, P., and Storaas, T. (2005). Hog deer Axis porcinus need threatened tallgrass floodplains: a study of habitat selection in lowland Nepal. Animal Conservation 8(1): 99-104.

Prater, S.H. (1971). The Book of Indian Animals. Bombay Natural History Society & Oxford Press, Delhi.

Smith, A.T., and Xie, Y. [eds.] (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Timmins, R., Duckworth, J.W., Samba Kumar, N., Anwarul Islam, M., Sagar Baral, H., Long, B., and Maxwell, A. (2012). Axis porcinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Available online at the IUCN Red List website.

Whitehead, K.G. (1993). The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer. Quiller Publishing, UK.

Additional Resources

*Acharjyo, L.N., and Mohapatra, S. (1980). Litter size of some captive wild mammals. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 77(2): 321-325.

Acharjyo, L.N., and Patnaik, S.K. (1983). Some observations on the antler cycle of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in captivity. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 80(3): 631-632.

Bhowmik, M.K. (2002). The causes of decline of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in protected areas of Himalayan West Bengal. Zoos' Print Journal 17(8): 858-860.

Bhowmik, M.K., Chakraborty, T., and Raha, A.K. (1999). The habitat and food habits of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in protected areas of sub-Himalayan West Bengal. Tiger Paper 26(2): 25-27.

Biswas, T. (2004). Hog Deer (Axis porcinus Zimmerman, 1780). ENVIS Bulletin 7:61-78.

*Biswas, T., and Mathur, V.B. (2000). A review of the present conservation scenario of Hog deer (Axis porcinus) in its native range. Indian Forester 126(10): 1068-1084.

Dhungel, S.K. (1985). Defecation rate of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in captivity. Journal of Wildlife Management 49(4): 925-926.

*Dinerstein, E. (1979). An ecological survey of the Royal Karnali-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Part II: Habitat/animal interactions. Biological Conservation 16(4): 265-300.

Durrant, B.S., Oosterhuis, J.E., Johnson, L., Plotka, E.D., Harms, P.G., and Welsh, T.H. (1996). Effect of testosterone treatment on the antler cycle of an Indian hog deer (Cervus porcinus) with low endogenous level of testosterone. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27(1): 76-82.

Evans, G.H. (1902). Notes on the Hog Deer in Burma. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 14: 310-315.

Hall, G.R., and Gill, K.P. (2005). Management of wild deer in Australia. Journal of Wildlife Management 69(3): 837-844.

Khan, M.M.H. (2004). A report on the existence of wild Hog Deers in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 32: 111–112.

McCarthy, A.J., and Dissanayake, S.B. (1994). Status of the hog deer in Sri Lanka. Oryx 28(1): 62-66.

Mishra, H.R., and Wemmer, C. (1987). The comparative breeding ecology of four cervids in Royal Chitwan National Park. Pp. 259-271 in Wemmer, C.M. [ed.] (1987). Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Miller, R. (1975). Notes on the behavior of hog deer in an enclosure. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 26(1-2): 105-132.

Moore, G., and Mayze, R. (1990). The hog deer. Australian Deer Research Foundation, Croydon, Australia.

Odden, M., and Wegge, P. (2007). Predicting spacing behavior and mating system of solitary cervids: a study of hog deer and Indian muntjac. Zoology 110: 261-270.

Pathak, N.N., Pattanaik, A.K., Patra, R.C., and Arora, B.M. (2001). Mineral composition of antlers of three deer species reared in captivity. Small Ruminant Research 42(1): 61-65.

*Seidensticker, J. (1976). Ungulate populations in Chitawan Valley, Nepal. Biological Conservation 10(3): 183-210.

Slee, K. (1995). Hog deer hunting on private property and its potential for conservation. People and nature conservation: Perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery, pp. 188-190.

Stoen, O.G., and Wegge, P. (1996). Prey selection and prey removal by tiger (Panthera tigris) during the dry season in lowland Nepal. Mammalia 60(3): 363-373.

Tandon, V. (1989). Conservation status of hog deer Cervus porcinus in India and adjacent areas. IUCN/SSC Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 7.

Taylor, P. G. (1971). Aspects of the biology of hog deer Axis porcinus (Zimmermann) 1780. Ph.D. Thesis: Monash University, Clayton, Victoria Province.

Wang, Z., and Du, R. (1983). Karyotypes of Cervidae and their evolution. Acta Zoologica Sinica 29(3): 214-222.

*Wegge, P., Shrestha, A.K., and Moe, S.R. ( 2006). Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands. Ecological Research 21(5): 698-706.

Whale, R. (1996). Surveying hog deer in Pakistan. Deer 10(1): 45.

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