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About ultimateungulate.com
A guide to this site


UltimateUngulate.com provides reliable information and pictures of the world's ungulates to the global online community. These pages have been created for educational use, and their use and distribution (with proper credit) is encouraged.


Brent HuffmanBrent Huffman holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Zoology (Honours) from the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada). He is a member of numerous zoological organizations, including ASM (American Society of Mammalogists), AAZK (American Association of Zoo Keepers), and AZA (Association of Zoos and Aquariums), and is a member of the IUCN SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group and the AZA Ungulate Taxon Advisory Groups. He is currently employed as the Lead Keeper of Mammals at the Toronto Zoo.

Brent is an avid wildlife photographer, and has traveled to numerous exotic locales in search of rare ungulate species, including Zanzibar for Aders's duiker; India for pygmy hogs, red serow, and wild water buffalo; Ethiopia for walia ibex and mountain nyala; and Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Cameroon in search of duikers, water chevrotain, and forest buffalo.

Published works include contributions to The Behavioural Biology of Zoo Animals (2022, CRC Press - coauthor, chapter "Behavioural biology and the future zoo: Overall conclusions"), Zoo and Aquarium History, 2nd Edition (2022, CRC Press - chapter: "Zoological Gardens of Canada"), Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Wild Pigs and Peccaries (2017, Cambridge University Press - coauthor, chapter: "Red River Hog"), Bovids of the World (2016, Princeton University Press - foreword), Encyclopaedia Britannica, Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Volume 2: Hoofed Mammals (2011, Lynx Edicions), and the textbook Zookeeping: An Introduction to the Science and Technology (2013, University of Chicago Press - chapter: "Hoofstock Husbandry and Care").

Zoo and Aquarium History 2022

Brent was a consultant for the 2020 Guinness Book of World Records, reviewing the accuracy of ungulate records. Other credits include coauthoring IUCN Red List species accounts, consulting for the BBC's "Life of Mammals" series, publishing zoo ungulate management articles for several professional organizations, and providing photographs for numerous scientific articles, popular publications, and WWF stamp issues.


The idea for the "Ultimate Ungulate Page" originated in March of 1996, when my personal experiences finding information and pictures of unusual animals online was far more difficult than I thought it should be. The empty niche of an all-encompassing ungulate site was readily apparent ... and so UltimateUngulate stepped in to fill the void. Originally, the species pages focussed primarily on photographs, but in time this goal was expanded into providing information on these species, first with brief statistics and slowly growing to include increasingly detailed accounts. The site eventually outgrew its fledgling location (http://www.pathcom.com/~dhuffman/), and on 1 January 2000, the Ultimate Ungulate Page became established at its current address: www.ultimateungulate.com.


Quick Facts Detailed Information References

To streamline browsing and make information more accessible, the accounts for individual species are being reorganized to include tabbed browsing. Each species will have up to three tabs, providing ready access to brief information ("Quick Facts" - the default page for each species), scientifically written and referenced accounts ("Detailed Information" - not present for all species), and a list of the literature used in the creation of the pages as well as a list of other resources available ("References").


"A picture is worth a thousand words" and numerous images of each species are provided when possible. However, because of the rarity of some of these photographs, all images have been branded with the photographer's name and the website address to ensure that credit to the photographer remains with the image. Unwatermarked images are available on request; alterations to remove the credit line may seem innocent, but is a form of property theft.

For more information on using photographs, please check out the terms of image use.